Jan Kozak Collection: Historical Earthquakes

Thumbnail Image Image-KZ100 Ruins of Praca de Patriarcal. The ruined facade of the Patriarcal is on the left, its central axis marked by one door flanked by columns. (Colored engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ101 View of Lisbon from south to north. Rough waters on Tagus River, the city is devastated and fire has broken out. See KZ893 for color version. (Engraving, Paris, 1863)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ102 Four views of important buildings in Lisbon: The Cathedral, Opera House, churches of S. Nicolau and S. Paolo. (Wood engraving, book illustration) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ103 Dramatic depiction of Lisbon along the bank of the Tagus River from east to west: houses exploding into fire, turbulent water, sinking ship, people fleeing. (Wood engraving, 1887)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ104 Ruins of Igreja de S. Paulo (Church of St. Paul), Lisbon. (Wood engraving, Paris, 1863??)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ105 Romantic view of the ruins of the Lisbon Cathedral. (Steel engraving, Paris, ca. 1866)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ107 City plan of Lisbon as it looked in 1650, before the earthquake.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ108 British satirical illustration. The Portuguese King asks a Protestant clergyman how to avoid future manifestations of divine displeasure, as evidenced by the earthquake. Damaged Lisbon in the right background. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ109 People escaping from ruined Lisbon, some saving their property, some praying. Ruined town in middle. (Colored print, England, 1817)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ110 View of Lisbon from south across Tagus River. Rough waters, fire, earthquake damage exaggerated. (Copper engraving. Germany?, late 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ111 Upper register is colored map of Lisbon before the earthquake. Lower register, in black and white, depicts Lisbon in flames shortly after the earthquake. Includes legend. Insert is bilingual (German & Latin) text. (Hand-colored copper engraving, Germany, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ112 'Das erdbeben zu Lissabon.' Imaginary view of Lisbon after the earthquake as seen from the Tagus River. (Engraving, Germany?, latter half 18th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ113 Lisbon seen from the east during the earthquake. Exaggerated fire and damage effects. People fleeing in foreground. (Copper engraving, Netherlands, 1756.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ114 The scene is the Praca de Santa Catarina on high ground close to the Tagus River in southwest Lisbon. The church is severely damaged. Dispossessed and injured people congregate in front of it. (Oil painting, Portugal, 1760) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ115 Attempt to rescue child from rubble. Buildings damaged by earthquake, fire in the background. Text describes the rescue. Ex-voto painting to Our Lady of the Star, Portugal, 18th c.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ117 Fanciful map of Lisbon: view from south across the river. Probably derived from G. Braun's composition in his Civitates Orbis Terrarum. (Copper engraving, Germany?, after 1755)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ118 Reconstruction work in Lisbon being inspected by Joseph I, King of Portugal. Unknown building being rebuilt on right. (Copper engraving, Portugal, after 1755) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ119 Lisbon a few days after the earthquake. Camping outside the damaged town, executions of robbers and looters. (Copper engraving, Germany, 1755) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ120 Exaggerated view of Lisbon from the southern bank of the Tagus River. Refugees from the city are camping in the foreground. (Copper engraving, Germany, late 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ121 Dramatic and somewhat exaggerated view of Lisbon from across the Tagus River. Possibly based on description or earlier depictions (Copper engraving, Germany, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ122 Refugees escaping Lisbon by boat. (Copper engraving, Netherlands, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ123 Lisbon in background, seen from across the river. (Copper engraving, 18th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ124 Lisbon after the earthquake, seen across the Tagus River. Fires burn in the city. (Copper engraving, Germany, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ125 Convento de Carmo (Carmelite church) in Lisbon before it was destroyed by the earthquake. (Copper engraving, Portugal, 18th c.) Compare to modern photo in KZ135.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ127 Ruins of the Trindade Convent. (Drawing, Portugal, 18th c.) (Lagos, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ128 View of Lisbon with very rough water in the foreground (probably the Tagus River), caused by the earthquake. (Copper engraving, France,) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ129 Two images of disaster relief in Lisbon. On the left, a woman is rescued with ladder and a group of citizens provide first aid (engraving after KZ67). On the right, a distressed woman (possibly an allegorical figure ) is being comforted, with the devastated city in background. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ130 View of Lisbon from across the river: harbor, damaged buildings, sinking ships. (Copper engraving, Germany, 18th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ131 Lisbon before (upper image) and after (lower image) the earthquake, showing the city in flames. View from south to north, across the river. Derived from earlier images. (Copper engraving, Germany, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ132 Dramatic scene of Lisbon with buildings tilted and fallen, people falling into fissures, etc. (Copper engraving, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ133 Pre-earthquake view of Lisbon from south across Tagus River (Copper engraving, France, before 1755) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ134 Detail of map of Lisbon showing rebuilt plan on rectangular grid. Section of town on alluvial soil had the most damage. Town rebuilt by Duke de Pombal. (Copper engraving, France, 1785)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ135 Photograph of the ruined Convento de Carmo (Carmelite Church), destroyed in 1755 by the earthquake. 15th century gothic columns and rib vaults shown. (Color photo, 1993). Compare to pre-earthquake engraving in KZ125. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ136 Central Lisbon before the earthquake. Center: Royal Palace Square and Cathedral; left: Royal Palace and Clock tower. At bottom, the Castle and Graca Convent. Clock tower closest to river. (Detail of colored tile panel, Portugal, early 18th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ138 Carlos Mardel's design for the reconstruction of the Terreiro de Paco (Royal Palace Square). (Copper engraving, colored, Portugal, after 1755) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ139 Map shows extent of shock felt in Europe. Background shows exaggerated damage, stones falling from tops of hills and other unrealistic phenomena. (Copper engraving, Germany, 1756) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ140 Upper panel shows Lisbon before the earthquake. Lower left panel shows damaged buildings and refugees in tents. Lower right panel is town of Meknes in Morrocco, also affected by the earthquake. (Copper engraving) (Lisbon, Portugal and Meknes, Morocco)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ141 Death and destruction in Lisbon, dramatically exaggerated. (Woodcut, Switzerland, 1756) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ142 The Lisbon earthquake as depicted in a Czech broadside. (Woodcut, Bohemia, 1755)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ143 Multiple images: Top: stylized representation of Lisbon before the earthquake. Center: Lisbon after the quake. Bottom: earthquake effects in Meknes, Morocco. (Lisbon, Portugal and Meknes, Morocco)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ144 Stylized representation of structural damage in Lisbon and of people taking refuge in rather elegant tents. Text describes the earthquake and compares it to the earlier 1531 earthquake. Reworking of KZ119. (Copper engraving, Germany, after 1755).
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ145 This image is from a Czech university thesis (Tepla monastery) from 1765 in which the physics of the earth is discussed. The image was inspired by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. St. Alexius, patron saint of earthquakes, floats across the sky. (Copper engraving, Bohemia, 1765) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ146 Boat on Haarlemer-Meer in the Netherlands capsizes due to effects of the Lisbon earthquake. (Copper engraving, Netherlands, 18th c.?)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ147 Imaginary depiction of the Earth showing interconnected corridors of fire. Volcano at another part of the Earth supposedly caused the earthquake in Lisbon.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ148 Imaginary depiction of the Lisbon earthquake and the inhabitants' response. Caption in Czech reads 'In 10 minutes, 40,000 people were buried and died in the quake'. (Copper engraving, Pilsen, Bohemia, 19th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ149 Imaginary illustration from the 1840's shows that earthquake had not been forgotten even after 90 years. (Newspaper illustration, London, ca.1840) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ150 'Rescue of the Duke's family' in Lisbon after the earthquake. (Frontispiece copper engraving from Czech book, l864) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ151 Illustration from religious book. Natural disasters are interpreted as punishment from God. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ32 City of Lisbon damaged by earthquake and subsequent fire. (Wood engraving, Paris, 1882)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ64 'Lisbone abysmee.' View of Lisbon from south to north including the Tagus River with refugee-laden boats sinking in rough water. On left, a fanciful tsunami engulfs the town. Numbering of the buildings implies a description which is now lost. Houses on extreme left undamaged. (Copper engraving, France, 18th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ65 Fire and earthquake damage in Lisbon. One ship sank in rough waters in the Tagus River. Town seen from south. (Steel engraving, Germany, 1820?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ66 Town seen from south of Tagus River. Represents Lisbon 2-3 days after the earthquake. Shows damage to town. Fires still burn but the water is calmer. Background hills are not accurate. Low resolution of photo prevents identifying details. Position of castle indicates image is flipped left to right. (Lithograph, Paris, 1866?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ67 Rescue scene in Lisbon. Women and children being rescued with ladders. In the background, one house is on fire, one in the midst of collapse, the house on the right appears undamaged. One of the few images showing disaster relief. (Copper engraving, Vienna, 1793). (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ68 Lisbon and suburbs seen from north. Description and legend describe damaged town structures. In the background, the town is hardly recognizable. In foreground, refugees camp out in tents. (Copper engraving, Paris, 1792). (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ689 Map of areas where the effects of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake were observed and recorded. (Pan-Atlantic region)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ69 View of Lisbon from the south across the Tagus. The ruined Almada Fortress is in the immediate foreground, then the rough waters of the river, with ships. The city is in the middle ground with some buildings engulfed by water. In the distance, refugee tents. (Copper engraving, Augsburg, 1792) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ692 Damaged town seen from south over Tagus river. Buildings on fire. Ships on fire or sinking. (Copper engraving) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ694 Lisbon damaged by earthquake. Part of city on fire. Ships rocked by rough water. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ70 Lisbon seen from south over rough waters of Tagus River. Ships staggering, houses collapsing, town on fire. (Copper engraving, France, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ71 Lisbon before (upper image) and after (lower image) the earthquake, view from south. Legend A through Q on upper image indicates specific buildings. (Copper engraving, Zurich, 1756) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ72 Views and maps of Lisbon before and after the earthquake. (Copper engraving, Augsburg, Germany, 1755 or -6) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ723 Collapsed church of St. Paul and other buildings destroyed by the Lisbon earthquake.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ73 Royal Palace at Lisbon before the earthquake. (Copper engraving) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ735 World map purporting to show how widely felt the 1755 Lisbon earthquake was. (Book illustration)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ75 Ribeira Palace after the earthquake. The roof has collapsed but the main structure does not appear to have sustained much damage. (Copper engraving) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ76 Ribeira Palace seen from northeast after repairs. Ground floor has been strengthened. Roof and cupola replaced. (Engraving) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ765 Map and view of Lisbon before the earthquake. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ766 Map and view of Lisbon before the earthquake. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ78 Repairs and new construction after the Lisbon earthquake. (Copper engraving, 18th c.) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ79 Ruins of The Cathedral and the Basilica de Santa Maria, Lisbon. Simplified copy of Le Bas engraving. (Wood engraving, Germany, 1836) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ821 View of the port of Lisbon before the earthquake. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ82A Tsunami (or seiche) struck the north bank of the Tagus River, completing the damage to Lisbon begun by the earthquake. Detail of KZ82. (Wood engraving?, 18th c?)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ83 Port of Lisbon seen from south, from the Tagus River. Town is heavily damaged and fire has broken out. (Copper engraving, 18th c.?) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ84 Somewhat fanciful depiction of Lisbon, after earlier prints. View towards harbor and city from the south, across the river. (Copper engraving, Prague, 1820-22) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ85 Title page for 'Collecao de algunas ruinas de Lisbon causados pelo terramoto e pelo togodo primeiro de Novemb. Do anno 1755.' The authors, Pedegache and Paris, made sketches of damage shortly after the earthquake. The images are high quality and precise, approaching the verity of photographs. (Paris and London, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ86 Tower of S. Roque collapsed in Lisbon, Portugal. Buildings in background undamaged. The "Tower" was one of the 77 towers of the wall built 1373-1375, during the reign of Ferdinand I to protect Lisbon from Castilian invaders. (Wood engraving, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ87 Igreja de S. Paulo (Church of St. Paul), Lisbon. Buildings at left shored up by wooden poles. (Copper engraving, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ88 Ruins of the Cathedral and the Basilica of Santa Maria. (Copper engraving, caption in French and Portuguese; no.5 in the Le Bas series, Paris, 1757) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ89 Ruins of the Cathedral and the Basilica de Santa Maria. Flowers and trees already growing from ruins. (Copper engraving, English version of French print, London?, 1757. See also KZ88)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ893 View of Lisbon from south to north. Rough waters on Tagus River, the city is devastated and fire has broken out. (Book illustration based on original engraving produced in Paris, 1863).
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ90 Igreja de S. Nicolau (Church of St. Nicholas) was one of the oldest churches in Lisbon. Destroyed by earthquake and fire.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ91 Ruins of Praca de Patriarcal (Patriarcal Sq.) (Copper engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ914 Ruins of the Church of St. Anthony in Lisbon. SEE ALSO KZ915. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ915 Ruins of the Church of St. Anthony in Lisbon. SEE ALSO KZ914. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ916 Citizens of Lisbon attacked by "evil-doers" after the earthquake. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ917 Preaching to the survivors. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ918 Portrait of the Count of Ericeira. The Marquis of Pombal was the author of a eulogy of the fifth count of Ericeira (Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier de Meneses (1689-1742)), in 1742.
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ92 Ruins of Opera House, Lisbon. Buildings on right shored up with tree trunks. (Copper engraving, Paris?, 1757) Caption in English. (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ93 Ruins of Praca de Patriarcal (Patriarcal Sq.) Caption in English. (Copper engraving, Paris, 1757) (Lisbon, Portugal)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ94 Igreja de Sao Paulo (St. Paul's Church) in ruins. Facade of the church collapsed, blocking the main door. More than 60 people inside the church died. (Copper engraving, Paris?, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ95 Damage to Tower of S. Roque. This tower was one of the 77 towers of a wall built between 1373 and 1375, during the reign of Ferdinand I, to protect Lisbon from Castilian invaders. (Colored engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ96 Igreja de S. Paolo (St. Paul's Church) The façade of the church collapsed, blocking the main door. More than 60 people were killed in the church by the earthquake and fire. (Colored engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ97 Two towers of the Lisbon Cathedral fell in the earthquake. The destruction was completed by fire. The building in left background may be ruins of church of S. Antonio. (Colored engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ98 The luxurious Lisbon Opera House, or Opera do Tejo, had just been completed in March 1755. It was almost completely destroyed by the fire following the earthquake. (Colored engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ99 Igreja de S. Nicolau (Church of St. Nicholas), one of the oldest churches in Lisbon was destroyed by the earthquake and subsequent fire. (Colored engraving, Paris, 1757)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZA32 Imaginary street scene during Lisbon earthquake. (Book illustration)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZA33 Imaginary street scene during Lisbon earthquake. (Book illustration)