Jan Kozak Collection: Historical Earthquakes

Thumbnail Image Image-KZ162 Bird's-eye view of the St. Lucido region, Italy, affected by the Calabrian earthquake (Copper engraving, Italy, 1783) (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ163 Belmonte castle and surrounding buildings seriously damaged by the Calabrian earthquake. (Copper engraving, Italy, 1783) (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ164 Heavy damage to Pizzo, Italy (Pizzo, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ165 Serious damage to the village, broken roofs, cracks in walls, castle half-ruined. (Borgo del Pizzo, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ166 Damage to the town. Town fortress ruined, large crevasse in front of town. People in foreground. (Monteleone, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ167 Heavily damaged town of St. Leoluca. (St. Leoluca, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ168 Total collapse of the Abbey church and partial damage to Mausoleum of Conte Rogiero Bosso in Mileto, Italy (Mileto, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ169 Ancient inscription on a wall in Mileto is badly damaged due to the earthquake. (Mileto, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ170 Mileto after the earthquake. Seen at a distance, there is no apparent damage In the foreground, barracks have been erected. (Mileto, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ171 Pargalia, Italy, from across the bay. Damage to Castello and Il Vescovito church. Houses on seacoast seriously damaged. In the foreground, people camping. (Pargalia, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ172 Left: Damaged and ruined peasant houses in Francica and Pungadi district. Right: Totally destroyed church in Francica district. (Francica district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ173 Large crevasse between two hills. Mesima River (St. Angelo district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ174 Peasant houses toally destroyed (Soriano district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ175 Soriano in ruins in the background. Collapsed temple in foreground. Landslides and large crevasses in the earth. (Soriano, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ176 Earthquake effects in Jerocarne district. Large star-shaped fissures, subsidences, and landslips. Two men are shown measuring the depth of the fissure. (Jerocarne district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ177 Top: Inner courtyard (cloister) of S. Bruno monastery. Bottom: Architectural details. (Serra San Bruno)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ178 Outside view of S. Bruno Monastery. Church and fortification towers ruined, damage to buildings. (Serra San Bruno, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ179 Background shows Castello Nuovo, Casa del Celestini, and Vescovato, all seriously damaged. In foreground, the Paolotti monument is being rebuilt. (Paolotti church district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ180 Rural scene showing numerous sinkholes rimmed with radial cracks. Holes have filled with water. This picture was often copied in later geological literature. (Rosarno district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ181 Ruined church of Our Lady in Rosarno (Rosarno, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ182 Very large sink hole, several meters in diameter, with radial cracks. It has filled with water. (Polistina, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ183 Polistina in ruins. Large fissure in middle of picture. (Polistina, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ184 Wooden buildings being rebuilt in foreground. Similar structures in the background seem not to be affected by the quake. (Polistina, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ185 Geophysical damage: ground cracks, landslides, uprooted trees. (Cinquefrondi, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ186 Ruined Terranova Tower (Terranova region, Italy.)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ187 Pozzo di S. Caterina (St. Catherine's Well) sunk into the ground, totally destroyed. (Terranova region, Italy.)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ188 Geophysical damage. Landscape showing broken and uprooted trees and landslides. (Terranova district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ189 Collapsed buildings, broken and falling trees, landslides. Fire on the horizon (Terranova District, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ190 Destroyed buildings, boulders moved. (Terranova district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ191 Olive oil press destroyed (at left). Large fissure in earth. (Terranova district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ192 Landscape showing massive landslides, broken trees, new dams caused by landslides. (Terranova district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ193 Geophysical damage: cracks, sinks, broken and uprooted trees. Artificial lakes caused by massive landslides. (Terranova district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ194 Molochiello Mountain slopes are scarred by cracks and landslides. Broken and uprooted trees. (Molochiello district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ195 Road to Casal destroyed (Casal region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ196 Landscape showing Tricuccio River Valley marked by massive landslides and surface deformation. (Tricuccio river district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ197 Massive landslides, uprooted and broken trees (Oppido district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ198 Massive landslides created new lakes. River Cumi reversed its course. Uprooted and broken trees. (Bozzano district, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ199 Landscape of most typical ground effects of strong earthquakes: large ground fissures, new lakes and mountains, massive landslides. (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ200 Large earth movement from Calabrian earthquake, barriers created. (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ201 Surface changes in the vicinity of the Amphitheater after the Calabrian earthquake. Near Vallone?? (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ202 Landslides as a result of Calabrian earthquake (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ203 Mill completely destroyed, cracks in earth. (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ204 Geophysical damage: landslides after the earthquake. (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ205 Cosoleto Hills after the earthquake. Terrace-like landforms to the left may indicate landslides. (Sinopli Vecchio region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ206 Rockfalls near Trodi (Trodi region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ207 Waterfalls and new lakes created by earthquake. (Sitizano region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ208 Town of S. Cristina. In foreground, ruined house. Middle shows landslides along river bank. (S. Cristina are, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ209 Destroyed Basiliani Church in Seminara, beginning reconstruction. (Seminara, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ210 Map of Scilla castle and environs, with legend Regions of earthquake damage are indicated in color [on original]. Inserts: 4 dramatic illustrations. (Scilla, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ211 Roofs, towers and walls of Reggio Calabria suffered severe damaged (Reggio Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ212 The Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) at Messina was heavily damaged: broken roofs, front and side walls, heaps of rubble in street. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ213 Ruined structures are shown. Top: Palazzo Reale, Porta di Valles, S. M. la Rosa, Seminario. Bottom: Ospectale de Sacerdoti, Porta de greci, Principe della Scalletta, Porta del campo, Principo di Calvaruso, Porta della Pescaria. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ214 Ruined structures are shown. Top: Mercante Marchetti, Porta dim Porticella oggi della Presentazione, Vari Particolari, Porta di Messina, Marchese Carrozza, Principe d'Alcantres, Porta dell dogana nuova. Bottom: Porta del Sale, Porta della dogana Vecchia, Palazzo Senatoria, Locanda, Ruffo della Scaletta, Porta dell Martoriati. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ215 Elevations of damaged palaces and buildings in Messina (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ216 Elevations of damaged buildings at Messina. Top: Pignatelli M. Leone, Porta di Tintori, Varj Particolari, Porta di S. Giovanni. Bottom: Varj Particolari, Porta del Borgo, Varj Particolari. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ217 Elevations of damaged buildings at Messina. Top: row of houses, Convento de Teresiani, Porta Flavia, Varj Particolari, Porta Reale, Castello. Bottom: Cincinello (a fish), Che si ritrova ne Mari di Sicilia. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ218 The "Duomo" and bell tower at Messina. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ219 A private house in Messina in ruins. The neighboring house at right shows damage to roof. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ220 Damage to Gerace. Numbered structures are identified as: 1) Cappuccini, 2) S. Francesco di Paola, 3)Borghetto, 4) Citta, 5) Borgo, 6)Risormati, 7)Capo Bruzzano. (Gerace, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ221 The town of Stilo in the distance and the buildings in the foreground do not seem to have been affected by the earthquakes. Only surface phenomena such as rockfall and a large fissure can be seen. It cannot be determined whether these phenomena are a result of the 1783 earthquake or not. Legend identifies buildings: 1) Stilo vechio, 2) Domenicani, 3) Vescovato, 4) la Cattolica, 5) Monistero dell Sig. Monache, 6) Francescani, 7) Basiliani, 8) Cappuccini. (Stilo, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ222 The town, its port and the Strait of Messina heavily damaged. Rough sea, sinking ships and people. Damaged to the town worsened by fires and heavy storm. (Engraving, Germany, 1783-84) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ223 An exaggerated view of the earthquake. Storm, volcanic activity, ships on rough sea, people in panic, heavily damaged town, partly on fire. (Copper engraving, Germany, 1783) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ224 Calabrian peasants engulfed in fissures. People in panic, caught in the ground. (Magazine illustration (lithograph?), U.S.A., 1868.) (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ225 Imaginary depiction of earthquake effects. Rough sea, extensive damage to town. People sinking into large fissures in foreground. Probably made from a verbal description. Image is flipped left to right. (Woodcut, Switzerland, 1784) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ226 Effects of the earthquakes and water waves to towns along the Calabrian and Sicilian coasts. (Copper engraving, Bavaria, 1783)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ227 Imaginary depiction of damage to Messina (Woodcut, Germany, ca.1783) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ228 Geophysical effects in Rosarno, Calabria: cone-shaped fissures. (Rosarno, Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ229 Upper image is at Polistena, Calabria showing ground fissure. Bottom image is an earth sink filled with water near Rosarno, Calabria. (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ230 Street scene in Messina during one of the quakes. (Copper engraving, Germany, 19th c.) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ231 Fanciful depiction of people trapped in a collapsed building.(Wood-engraving, France, 2nd half of 19th c.) (Reggio Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ232 Refugees from ruined Polistena. (Wood-engraving, France, 2nd half of 19th c.) (Polistena, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ233 Large landslide outside Settizano, due to earthquake. Blocked river created a new lake. (Copper engraving, France, 1783?) (Settizano, Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ234 Landslides (mud flow?) near Calabria. (Copper engraving, France, ca. 1783) (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ235 Rescue efforts in Messina. (copper engraving, 18th c.?) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ236 Ground effects in 3 regions of Calabria: Polistena, Jerocarne [sic], and Rosarno. (Based on Schiantarelli and Stile's original drawings of 1783). (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ237 Earthquake at Messina. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ238 Ground effects in four regions: Jerocarne, Oppido, Polistena and Hill of S. Angelo. (Made from Schiantarelli's original images of 1783. Pub. in London, 1870). (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ239 Ground effects in four regions: Scilla, by Rosarno, near Casalnuovo and S. Bruno (Wood-engraving, London, 1870). (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ240 Strait of Messina with ship being sucked into the whirlpool. Towers on opposite sides of the straits, 'Scylla and Charybdis,' show major damage. Only slight damage to Messina itself. The title at the top of the print is reversed: 'Le célèbre pour les vaissaux autre fois si dangereux détroit de Faro di Messina.' (Hand-colored copper engraving, Augsburg, Germany, 1783) (Strait of Messina, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ241 Strait of Messina with whirlpool sinking a ship. Both gate towers 'Scylla and Charybdis' seriously damaged. In Messina, only slight damage to town. (Copper engravings, Paris, 1783. Reversed versions of KZ240) (Strait of Messina, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ242 Large buildings have collapsed, some upheaval of the ground. (Hand-colored copper engraving, Milan?, late 18th c.) (Calabria region, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ243 Church and other buildings have collapsed. There are large ground fissures and smoke from fires. (Hand-colored copper engraving, Milan?, late 18th c.) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ244 Image shows only moderate damage to town: columns and towers lean, buildings are damaged, there are ground fissures. In reality, Oppido was totally destroyed by the earthquakes and not rebuilt. (Hand-colored copper engraving, Milan(?), late 18th.c.) (Oppido, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ245 Street scene in Messina during or after one of the quakes: buildings have collapsed and fires have started. (Lithograph?, Germany, 2nd half of 19th c.) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ246 Messina in ruins. (Hand-colored print, London?, late 18th c.) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ690 Geophysical maps showing the region of macroseismic observations of the 1783 Calabria earthquake effects (right) as related to the volcanic activities of the region (left) (Calabria/Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ691 Maps showing volcanic activities of Sicily, Greek islands, and Cape Verde Islands. Illustrations relate to the 1783 Calabrian earthquake. (Mediterranean and Atlantic)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ699 Vivid rendering of the earthquake's effects on the town of Catania. (Catania, near Naples, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ717 Geotechnical effects of the earthquake. Left: Pools formed at Rosario. Right: View near north end of the gorge (at Bella) (Newspaper illustration, New York, 1881.) (Rosario and Bella, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ727 Earthquake at Messina. (Book illustration) (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ729 Earthquake at Messina. (Messina, Sicily)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ737 Map of Calabria indicating places affected by the earthquake. (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ747 Seismic map shows 3 degrees of damage. (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ767 Map of region of Calabrian earthquake. (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ824 Landslide triggered by the 1783 earthquake crated new lakes in the Valley. (Calabria, Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZ826 Large landslides caused by the 1783 earthquake, near Seminara. (Seminara (Calabria) Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZA11 Collapsing town, terrified people. (Copper engraving) (Calabria, Italy(?))
Thumbnail Image Image-KZA13 Catastrophic events in Europe in 1783 and earlier: Black Death, war with Turks, floods, etc. Earthquakes in Messina and Calabria represented in upper corners. (Copper engraving)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZA24 Simple woodcut shows effects of 1783 earthquake. (Czech broadside, after 1783) (Scilla (Silla), Italy)
Thumbnail Image Image-KZA29 Ornamental title for a map of Sicily emphasizing volcanic and seismic activities. (Copper engraving) (Sicily)