Buckle, Ian G.; Friedland, Ian M.; Mander, John B.; Martin, Geoffrey R.; Nutt, Richard V.; Power, Maurice S.
FHWA-HRT-06-032, McLean, VA : Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), 2006-01, PDF
Part 1 of this manual is based on previous Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publications on this subject including Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges, published in 1995 as report FHWA-RD-94-052. Revisions have been made to include current advances in earthquake engineering, field experience with retrofitting highway bridges, and the performance of bridges in recent earthquakes. It is the result of several years of research with contributions from a multidisciplinary team of researchers and practitioners. In particular, a performance-based retrofit philosophy is introduced similar to that used for the performance-based design of new buildings and bridges. Performance criteria are given for two earthquake ground motions with different return periods, 100 and 1000 years. A higher level of performance is required for the event with the shorter return period (the lower level earthquake ground motion) than for the longer return period (the upper level earthquake ground motion). Criteria are recommended according to bridge importance and anticipated service life, with more rigorous performance being required for important, relatively new bridges, and a lesser level for standard bridges nearing the end of their useful life. Minimum recommendations are made for screening, evaluation and retrofitting according to an assigned Seismic Retrofit Category. Bridges in Category A need not be retrofitted whereas those in Categories B, C and D require successively more rigorous consideration and retrofitting as required. Various retrofit strategies are described and a range of related retrofit measures explained in detail, including restrainers, seat extensions, column jackets, footing overlays, and soil remediation.
Available online: http://nisee.berkeley.edu/elibrary/files/documents/elib/www/documents/201205/FHWA-HRT-06-032.pdf (15 MB)